Those who work in and visit high-rise office buildings, warehouses, petroleum storage facilities, electric power plants, and other sizable structures and outdoor work areas are commonly subject to safety and security issues beyond their control. This includes the potential of injury and death due to fire and explosion. Corporations typically spend sizable sums of money in an attempt to minimize the risks.
For example, according to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) of Quincy, MA, in 2016, there were 1,342,000 fires reported in the United States which caused 3,390 civilian deaths; 14,650 civilian injuries; and $10.6 billion in property damage (http://bit.ly/2pp2KK0). In addition, last year, 25 fires alone in the U.S. resulted in losses of at least $10 million each, for a cumulative total of $1.4 billion in direct property loss (http://bit.ly/2pphfOK).
Fire detection in commercial and institutional properties usually consist of traditional, code-compliant fire alarm systems. These systems commonly include 1) spot-type detectors, such as smoke detectors as well as heat, rate-compensation, and rate-of-rise sensors; 2) line-type detectors, such as photoelectric projected-beam smoke detection and ProtectoWire-type temperature-sensitive cable; and 3) volumetric detectors, such as air-sampling smoke/fire detection systems, infrared (IR) flame detectors, combination flame detectors, and others.
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